sixteen tu Brand new REFLEXIVE PREFIX From inside the ZULU – A great TYPOLOGICAL Direction Sonja Elizabeth. Bosch On this page I shall read the the sources of reflexive prefix within the Zulu, paying special attention on procedure of grammaticalization for which lexemes turn into grammatical formatives. Due to the fact reflexivization in a number of Bantu languages could well be opposed, the article have been in the form of an effective typological analysis. In Lehmann s () talk of your phenomena which happen to be commonly referred to as reflexive, it is interesting to see that he assumes on five types of reflexives, specifically 0) autophoric nouns which are normal nouns such as for example muscles, inhale, heart, lead one to ple, when you look at the Sanscrit the fresh noun dtman definition air, spirit, along with Basque, the newest noun burua definition lead, are accustomed to share the same as English thinking. Autophoric nouns made use of just like the reflexives usually are followed by a good possessive pronoun, as with the next analogy off Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani energy:acc set:region placing fuel into the himself (ii) reflexive nouns which are nouns saying this is care about and nothing otherwise, including the German selbst me and you can Finnish itse because illustrated about after the examples: 344
17 Italian language (2) Ich komme selbst I am upcoming myself Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-lorsque? want-dos.sg-int citation-acc.pl care about-all-poss.dos.sg Would you like the fresh seats for yourself? For the languages particularly Finnish, Hungarian and you may Turkish reflexive nouns get possessive affixes, during almost every other languages including German or the Relationship languages, these nouns commonly normally along side possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns that have the main intent behind it comes back again to the topic, such as the Italian language sich in: Italian language (4) Sie waschen sich He or she is washing on their own (iv) spoken reflexives which happen to be verb affixes showing the action somehow has an effect on the niche, as with another instances: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-select the guy spotted themselves Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di boy tidy-refl-through the guy washed himself Lehmann () stresses the borders between the classes are fluid and you may claims these four types of reflexive points are actually towards a measure regarding increasing grammaticalization.
To phrase it differently, one can come across this due to the fact a beneficial continuum from alter that will end up being depicted below: 345
18 Lexical goods Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) will bring advice in numerous dialects to help you train the changes that have occurred or continue to be taking place in one classification to help you the second. The procedure of alter try confirmed because of the Faltz () exactly who, pertaining to their morphological distinction between one or two fundamental brand of reflexives, specifically NP-reflexives which could include a moderate morpheme acting as direct of reflexive noun keywords, and verbal reflexives, including reflexive pronouns being cliticized onto the verb, remarks: Languages will get move from you to rod into the other, in reality, for example course are always regarding NP-reflexive rod for the spoken reflexive pole. When you look at the Zulu reflexiveness are mature quality singles reddit understood as an effective prefix which in person precedes this new verb stalk. The fresh new reflexive prefix are invariable fit, for example it is a morphological figure and therefore stays ongoing regardless of the course that its antecedent belongs. This is certainly obviously depicted from the after the advice for the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya this new-guy the guy-himself hit the man strike himself (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the fresh-woman she-herself-see in-echo The lady notices by herself in the reflect In these examples -zi- is the reflexive morpheme additionally the measures off struck and find out is actually brought back abreast of this new respective grammatical subjects, which is, child and girl. It is fascinating one to inside the generative education, a life threatening insight is done to your fundamental design away from phrases that has reflexives, particularly NP1 – V – NP1. On the surface, such as a housing are ungrammatical on Bantu languages if the several NPs are co-referential and the same in form, elizabeth.grams. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho duped Sipho In Zulu such as for example a sentence is established grammatical from the insertion off a good reflexive prefix throughout the verb and brand new deletion of the co-referential noun. age.grams. 346